The four generations of district heating were first defined in 2014. This division has given us a common framework for research and industry. It points to potential futures for district heating where we all can benefit from low-temperature heating in buildings. The fully developed 4th generation district heating uses the cross-sectoral integration into a smart energy system.
This article defines four generations of district cooling to create a similarly useful framework for district cooling.
- 1st generation – pipeline refrigeration systems – first introduced in the late 19th century
- 2nd generation – mainly based on large compression chillers and cold water as distribution fluid
- 3rd generation – more diversified cold supply like natural cooling
- 4th generation – combines cooling with other energy sectors, also including a renewable energy-based smart energy system context – and combined heating and cooling
- Definition of four generations of district cooling
- District cooling systems, from the first developments to contemporary state-of-the-art
- District cooling and energy system integration
The article was written by Poul Alberg Østergaard, Sven Werner, Anders Dyrelund, Henrik Lund, Ahmad Arabkoohsar, Peter Sorknæs, Oddgeir Gudmundsson, Jan Eric Thorsen, Brian Vad Mathiesen
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